What Is The Slav Defense?
- A chess opening for Black against 1.d4
- characterized by the moves 1.d4 d5 2.c4 c6
- named after players from Slavic countries who contributed many ideas to the development of this opening
- a solid and resilient opening
- played by many strong GMs of the past and present (featured in plenty of World Championship Matches)
The Slav Defense is one of the most popular chess openings for Black in response to 1.d4 and enjoys a reputation of being one of the safest replies against the Queen’s Gambit. It is one of the most trusted openings in chess, popular at all levels from beginner to strong grandmasters.
The opening has been a regular guest in World Chess Championship Matches throughout history.
It has been played by World Champions Max Euwe, Mikhail Botvinnik and Vassily Smyslov, among others, and also by several modern World Champions. Vladimir Kramnik, for instance, used the Slav Defense in six of his eight games with Black during his World Chess Championship match against Veselin Topalov in 2006. Vishy Anand used the Slav Defense in several World Championship Matches against Kramnik in 2008, Topalov in 2010 and Gelfand in 2012. The current Champion, Magnus Carlsen, played the opening in his match with Sergey Karjakin in 2016.
The Slav belongs to the group of closed chess openings for Black and occurs after the moves 1.d4 d5 2.c4 c6 (see the position on the right).
The opening got its name in honor of several strong players from Slavic countries, including well-known names like Semyon Alapin, Alexander Alekhine and Efim Bogoljubov, who contributed many ideas to the opening’s development.
- Not comfortable playing with the Black pieces? Read this must-read guide on chess openings for Black
One thing that makes the Slav Defense so trendy today is that even though opening theory continuously develops and incredibly strong engines frequently find novelties and new approaches, there is still no easy way for White to get an advantage against this opening.
For many 1.d4 players, the Slav Defense presents an impenetrable wall, too tough a nut to crack. In fact, the Slav Defense is one of the main reasons why plenty of 1.d4 players give up opting for mainlines and try their luck with more surprising sidelines.
While it is true that the Slav is a solid opening, that isn’t to say that it is an opening weapon simply used to make a draw. In fact, it carries some hidden bite. On many occasions, for example, Black can capture the White c4-pawn with his d-pawn and defend it with the move …b7-b5, claiming an extra pawn.
This ultimate guide to the Slav Defense provides you with all you need to know about this fascinating opening.
- What are the overall advantages of playing the Slav Defense?
- Which opening traps and typical tactical motifs should Black be aware of?
- And what are the main lines and the latest theoretical developments for both sides?
Slav Defense – Basics and Key Concepts
In the Slav Defense, Black starts to fight for the center from the very beginning of the game and creates a very solid c6-d5 pawn chain.
The opening operates on similar principles to those in the Stonewall Attack and French Defense, in that the pawns will be placed primarily on 1 color (in the Slav Defense, the light-squares c6, d5, e6) and the pieces will emphasize control of the dark squares in the center (c5, d6, e5 etc.).
The main idea of this opening becomes clear when we take a closer look at the main problem that comes with playing the Queen’s Gambit Declined with Black.
In the Queen’s Gambit Declined mainline, arising after 1.d4 d5 2.c4 e6, Black’s solid e6-d5 pawn chain limits the light-squared bishop on c8. Of course, there are numerous plans that may help Black to activate his light-squared bishop later in the game. Yet, the outcome of the opening struggle often depends on this question of whether Black will be able to achieve activity with this bishop, or whether it will remain a passive piece, locked in by its own pawns.
Secondly, in the Queen’s Gambit Declined, Black’s pawn structure after 1.d4 d5 2.c4 e6 3.Nc3 Nf6 4.cxd5 exd5 (see the diagram to the left) gives White an extra central pawn and the opportunity to start a minority attack on the queenside.
The Slav Defense, however, after 1.d4 d5 2.c4 c6 addresses both of these problems for Black.
With 2…c6, Black supports his d-pawn with the c-pawn instead of the e-pawn. The advantage is that Black does not block in his light-squared bishop on c8 which is still free to move outside the pawn chain to g4 or f5. Secondly, with a pawn on c6, Black can meet White’s cxd5 move with …cxd5, leaving a symmetrical structure and not allowing White to launch a minority attack.
That’s not to say there aren’t some downsides to the Slav you need to be aware of. If any opening were perfect, it would be played by everyone! One disadvantage of the Slav is that the typical move …c5, counter-attacking White’s center, loses a tempo because …c6 has been already played (Black cannot go for …c5 in one move).
Secondly, the Black c-pawn blocks the c6-square for the b8-knight. This knight often has to be developed to the more modest d7 square.
Why Play The Slav Defense?
Before we dive into any lines, it’s always a wise decision to take a look at the broader picture. Why play the Slav Defense at all? What kind of playing style will suit the Slav?
There are several reasons to play the Slav Defense:
- First of all, the Slav Defense is considered to be one of the most successful openings and has an excellent score in chess databases. That means by playing it, you are automatically maximizing your chances. In fact, White has the lowest winning percentage after 1.d4 d5 2.c4 against the move 2…c6.
- Secondly, playing the Slav Defense with 2…c6 is a very natural and classical way of reacting to White’s threat of cxd5. Instead of defending the d5-pawn with the move 2…e6 or capturing the c4-pawn with 2…dxc4 (allowing White to get an extra central pawn in both cases), Black keeps his the center firmly under control. The Slav Defense is one of the most logical openings Black can play against the Queen’s Gambit after 1.d4 d5 2.c4.
- Compared to other chess openings for Black against 1.d4 such as the Grunfeld Defense, playing the Slav Defense does not force you to learn an endless amount of theory. It’s much more important to know the key strategic ideas and plans.
- In the past, the Slav had a reputation of being too drawish, which was not suitable for many players. However, that’s only half the story. Thanks to the asymmetrical pawn structure (especially in the lines with …dxc4) that arises from several variations, the Slav Defense is also an opening you can use to play for a win.
- The Slav Defense is an opening which has been successfully used by the greatest players from the past and present. In the introduction, we already named plenty of World Champions who regularly employed it.
- The Slav can be entered through many move orders and Slav setups can also be used against White’s other openings such as 1.c4 and 1.Nf3. The Slav Defense allows you to build a complete repertoire around structures and plans that you are familiar with. This saves you a lot of time as you don’t need to study additional lines against 1.c4 and 1.Nf3.
Slav Defense – Typical Chess Tactics
Active learning is the key to success in chess.
Before continuing, try to solve these 4 puzzles featuring typical tactical motifs that frequently arise from this opening. (You’ll find all the solutions at the end of the article.)
Slav Defense – Move Orders and Variations
We need to create a complete roadmap of the lines and variations we need to study when we want to play the Slav Defense. This helps us to keep track of the jungle of variations.
- If you want to know how to study chess openings the right way, read this detailed and easy-to-scan guide
First of all, before we can start studying the lines in our opening system, we need to make sure that we actually reach our opening.
After the moves 1.d4 d5 2.c4 c6, White is at a crossroad. He has three main options here:
- 3.cxd5 – This leads to the Exchange Variation (occurs in about 10% of games from this position)
- 3.Nc3 – This move can still transpose to the mainline after 3…Nf6 4.Nf3, but it can also lead to an independent variation after 4.e3 (occurs in about 30% of games)
- 3.Nf3 – This move leads to most frequently played mainlines and sidelines of the Slav Defense and needs further consideration (occurs in about 60% of games)
After the moves 1.d4 d5 2.c4 c6 3.Nf3 Nf6, White is again at a crossroad. He has no less than five main options here:
- 4.Nbd2 – This leads to a relatively rare sideline which White can try (occurs in about less than 5% of games from this position)
- 4.Qc2/4.Qb3 – These two moves in our repertoire lead to the same position after 4…dxc4 5.Qxc4. They are sidelines, but give White a very solid game (occurs in less than 5% of games)
- 4.g3 – This is also a relatively rare sideline, usually preferred by Catalan players. Yet, White’s light-squared bishop is not ideally located on g2 (occurs in less than 5% of games)
- 4.e3 – This is one of the two big mainlines for White. The move 4.e3 became quite popular thanks to the recommendation in Boris Avrukh’s repertoire books for White (occurs in less than 30% of games).
- 4.Nc3 – This is the most frequently played move for White, leading to the absolute main tabiya of the Slav Defense. Black is at a crossroad here (occurs in less than 55% of games)
A short disclaimer needs to be made at this point about the Semi-Slav Defense which is not covered in this article but will be the focus of a future article.
The reason for this is that the Semi-Slav Defense leads to quite different play, including the mainlines which need to be covered in huge detail and lead to sharp positions. Moreover, with an early …e6 in the Semi-Slav, Black voluntarily boxes in his light-squared bishop (which he later develops on the long diagonal with …b7-b5, …Bc8-b7, …a7-a6 and …c6-c5). This is perfectly playable, but deserves an independent article with some more in-depth coverage of the key lines and ideas.
Theory Section: The Slav Defense
Lets take a close look at all the variations we’ve mentioned, step-by-step, building an easy to learn repertoire for Black. Building a repertoire always implies deciding on certain variations and discarding others. The same applies to the repertoire presented in this article.
The aim of this article is to provide you with a repertoire for busy people who don’t have time to regularly update their repertoire with all the new concepts and novelties. We’ll explain all the key ideas.
You can study these variations separately and add them to your repertoire as you go along. The Slav Defense is an excellent opening which allows you to vary a lot within your own system. In the mainlines after 1.d4 d5 2.c4 c6 3.Nf3 Nf6 4.Nc3, for example, you can play the Classical Variation with 4…dxc4, the Chebanenko Slav with 4…a6, the Schlechter Slav with 4…g6, the Schallopp Variation with 4…Bf5 and, of course, the Semi-Slav with 4…e6.
As a warning, however, it also needs to be said that there are quite a few variations, transpositions and move order tricks in the Slav Defense. Be careful not to miss the forest for the trees!
Slav Defense: Exchange Variation (1.d4 d5 2.c4 c6 3.cxd5 cxd5)
The Slav Defense Exchange Variation is a tricky line to meet for two reasons.
First of all, in the hands of a well-prepared White player, it looks harmless on the surface but there are many subtle opening traps that can lead to a dangerous White initiative on the queenside. There are some new and trendy ideas for White to put pressure on Black. In these lines, Black can’t play on autopilot but needs to know some precise moves.
Secondly, most Slav players don’t like to face this line against weaker opponents who only want to make a draw in a very symmetrical position.
It’s true that it’s not immediately obvious how Black can create major imbalances against the Exchange Variation if he definitely wants to win. Yet, it’s just like most other chess openings for Black – if White does not take any risk in the opening and plays very solidly, Black needs to be patient. The fact that the position is symmetrical and equal does not mean that it has to end in a draw. There are many games in the Exchange Variation where Black outplayed a White player who only wanted to draw with this line.
The key to win with Black is to meet the Exchange Variation with the right mindset. Black should not be angry to get a symmetrical and equal position out of the opening, but happy to get easy equality with the Black pieces. Equalizing with Black is the first step to later taking over the initiative. If Black gets an equal position without having to make any tough decisions in the opening, he should feel comfortable.
First, we’re going to take a look at the less dangerous older lines (including an early Ng1-f3) White can try. These lines are still frequently played as they feature the most logical moves White can make. In this video, FM Will Stewart covers two classical games to provide you with the key ideas for Black in this variation.
With the classical lines covered, we’re going to take a closer look at the modern attempts from White, including an early Qb3, attacking the Black pawn on b7:
Slav Defense: 3.Nc3 Variation (1.d4 d5 2.c4 c6 3.Nc3 Nf6 4.e3)
If White plays 3.Nc3, play can easily transpose into one of the mainlines. Yet, there is an independent system White can try by going for 4.e3. Black needs to make a decision here.
For many years, the logical move 4…Bf5 was considered to be bad for Black in view of 5.cxd5 cxd5 6.Qb3, targeting the pawn on b7. Yet, in recent years it was discovered that Black can sacrifice a pawn in this line in order to obtain very active play. As the move 4…Bf5 fits well into our repertoire, we’re going to take a closer look at it.
Slav Defense: 4.Nbd2 Variation (1.d4 d5 2.c4 c6 3.Nf3 Nf6 4.Nbd2)
With 4.Nbd2, White avoids a lot of the theory in the Slav Defense and plays more calmly. Of course, the knight on d2 is not as actively placed as it would be on c3. Therefore, Black does not need to fear this line and does not need to know too much theory here.
If you want to know a bit more about this system, you can watch the following video by GM Alex Ipatov. He takes a look at this move from White’s perspective and explains some more interesting ideas and possibilities for both sides.
Slav Defense: 4.Qc2/4.Qb3 Variation (1.d4 d5 2.c4 c6 3.Nf3 Nf6 4.Qc2/Qb3)
The variation with 4.Qc2/4.Qb3 is a very solid line for White. Both sides do not need to know too much theory but need to be familiar with some essential strategic and positional ideas.
It’s important to note that the moves 4.Qc2 and 4.Qb3 usually lead to the same position after 4…dxc4 5.Qxc4. However, White has an additional option after 4.Qc2 as he does not need to immediately recapture the pawn on c4 after 4…dxc4. Yet, this is only a sideline and Black is fine if he knows a few precise moves.
Slav Defense: 4.g3 Variation (1.d4 d5 2.c4 c6 3.Nf3 Nf6 4.g3)
The move 4.g3 leads to a relatively rare and harmless sideline which Black does not need to fear. It is usually played by Catalan or Reti players who do not want to enter the big theoretical mainlines. However, the setups with the bishop on g2 against the Slav Defense are only good for White if the Black light-squared bishop is boxed inside his own pawn chain (the positions where Black played an early …e6 before bringing out the bishop).
After 4.g3, Black easily manages to bring out his bishop to the active squares f5 or g4. White’s bishop on g2, in contrast, usually bites on granite on the h1-a8 diagonal as Black has the solid b7-c6-d5 pawn chain.
Slav Defense: 4.e3 Mainline (1.d4 d5 2.c4 c6 3.Nf3 Nf6 4.e3)
The variation with 4.e3 is a rather positional line for White which received mainline status thanks to the efforts of GM Boris Avrukh who recommended it for White in his “Grandmaster Repertoire 1 – 1.d4 Volume One”. With the move 4.e3, White strengthens his d4-pawn and protects the pawn on c4 with his bishop. Therefore, lines with an early …dxc4 don’t make any sense for Black anymore.
Black players have tried several ideas against this setup. Yet, as we’re recommending a rather classical Slav Defense repertoire, we’ll stick to the move 4…Bf5 here, bringing the bishop outside the pawn chain and leading to the Schallopp Variation.
In the following video, FM Will Stewart covers the main ideas for Black in this variation and looks at four games where players like Magnus Carlsen, Alexei Shirov and Alexey Dreev show us how to approach the position with the Black pieces.
Slav Defense: 4.Nc3 Mainline (1.d4 d5 2.c4 c6 3.Nf3 Nf6 4.Nc3)
The move 4.Nc3 is the absolute main move White can play against the Slav Defense. It has been played in many World Chess Championship matches and remains popular today.
First of all, against 4.e3, we’ve introduced you to the Schallopp Variation with an early 4…Bf5.
The move 4…Bf5 is also playable against 4.Nc3. It’s a shortcut to play the Slav Defense with Black if you don’t have the time to study a lot of opening theory. Yet, it’s only fair to mention that White has quite an effective setup after the moves 1.d4 d5 2.c4 c6 3.Nf3 Nf6 4.Nc3 Bf5 5.cxd5 cxd5 6.Qb3 which gives him a slightly better position.
The Schallopp Variation of the Slav Defense retains one major drawback – White can obtain a dangerous initiative by playing a flexible move order that exploits the fact that with an early …Bf5, Black is giving up protection of his b7-pawn.
FM Will Stewart tells you more about this setup for White in the following two videos.
However, 4…Bf5 saves you a lot of time studying theory and there is also a good chance that many White players at club level are not familiar with the most ambitious variation. In these cases, Black gets a good game.
In the following video, FM Will Stewart takes a look at the less challenging setups White can try:
Secondly, he investigates the critical line that a well-prepared White player can come up with:
If you want to enter the mainlines in the variation after 1.d4 d5 2.c4 c6 3.Nf3 Nf6 4.Nc3, however, you’re well-advised to play the move 4…dxc4. There is a lot more theory here, but the good news is that, according to the current state of theory, White has not found a way to prove an advantage. That means that your hard work on this line will definitely be rewarded.
Let’s take a look at the most important ideas and variations:
As we’ve seen, after the moves 1.d4 d5 2.c4 c6 3.Nf3 Nf6 4.Nc3 dxc4 5.a4 Bf5, White is at a crossroads and has a choice between 6.e3 and 6.Ne5. If you want to study the latter move more deeply, the following video should be of interest to you. GM Joel Benjamin analyzes a game Fabiano Caruana lost with Black against Wang Hao.
With this game, GM Joel Benjamin not only shows the dangers of the 6.Ne5 line, but he also points out ways for Black to deviate from what happened in the game. It’s definitely a good starting point for exploring lines after 6.Ne5.
Opening Experts in the Slav Defense
If you want to become an expert in your chess opening, it is a wise decision to regularly check the games of the world’s leading experts in the chess opening.
You can watch their approaches against different opening setups and become familiar with the latest trends, fashionable move orders or opening novelties. If you choose to play the Slav Defense, you have several opening experts to follow.
It’s tough to name a single biggest expert in the Slav Defense as almost all of the world’s best players have played the Slav Defense or at least experimented with it.
You can check the games of Magnus Carlsen, Vishy Anand, Vladimir Kramnik, and Shakhriyar Mamedyarov, for example.
Other strong players to follow are Chinese Grandmasters like Wang Yue, Wang Hao, and Bu Yiangzhi.
Also check out the games of GM Boris Avrukh, GM Alexey Dreev, and GM Alexander Morozevich.
Model Games In The Slav Defense
Many great games have been played in the Slav Defense and it’s definitely worth studying them.
In order to properly learn a new opening, it is not enough to take a close look at theoretical lines – you also need to study some classical model games.
Checking complete games has various advantages. Most importantly, you get a better overall understanding of the positions arising from your opening. The focus is on a general understanding of the resulting middlegame and endgame positions.
As the famous Grandmaster Yasser Seirawan once put it: “Study entire games. Your study can become disjointed if you just learn an opening set-up. Don’t just study the opening and early middlegame but instead play the entire game. Don’t just stop when your side has a good position.”
Let’s now take a look at some classical and recent games in which Black showed how to play the Slav Defense against decent opposition:
Topalov, Veselin (2813) – Kramnik, Vladimir (2743): Elista 2006
The first game we’re going to look at was a dramatic game from the World Chess Championship 2006 between Vladimir Kramnik and Veselin Topalov. We’re going to see a fighting game in one of the main lines of the Slav Defense:
Anand, Vishy (2783) – Kramnik, Vladimir (2772): Bonn 2008
The following game is another well-known fight from the World Chess Championship match between Vishy Anand and Vladimir Kramnik in 2008. In this game, Kramnik achieved a comfortable draw with the Black pieces. It’s very instructive to watch his play in one of the main lines.
Carlsen, Magnus (2881) – Anand, Vishy (2785): Dubai 2014
This game is a nice illustration to show that Black can win in the Slav Defense even against the Exchange Variation. Vishy Anand beat none other than Magnus Carlsen in this game.
Conclusion – Master The Slav Defense
The Slav Defense is a strong opening for club players, and you should consider giving it a go to expand your horizons.
It’s a very solid and reliable opening which also helps you to become a better overall strategic player.
The Slav Defense can be quite complex and it allows for lots of different variations so players who like to be creative and don’t like to play the same variation every game will really enjoy it.
In his course Deep Dive: The Slav, GM Damian Lemos provides 8 hours of training that leaves you with a solid mastery of this great opening …well-armed to deal with any 1.d4 player you encounter.
Solutions To The Test Positions:
- Top Left Corner: 1…Bc2! wins for Black. The White queen gets trapped after 2.Rd2 Nb6! -+.
- Bottom Left Corner: White wins with the killer move 1.Ng5! Bg6 2.Bxg6 hxg6 (2…fxg6 3.Qh3! h6 4.Qxe6+ +-) 3.Qh3!, threatening Qh7 mate. Black has no defense.
- Top Right Corner: Black wins after 1…Nxg5 2.Nxg5 Qa5+, picking up the hanging knight on g5.
- Bottom Right Corner: White wins after 1.Nxf7+! Kxf7 2.Qf3!, attacking the rook on a8 and the bishop on f5. Black’s position is beyond repair. With his exposed king, he has a lost position.
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