Is Chess a Sport? – 5 Reasons Why Chess is a Sport

Why Is Chess A Sport?Is Chess A Sport? – 5 Definitive Reasons Why Chess Is A Sport

  • The International Olympic Committee considers chess to be a sport.
  • Chess requires physical exertion as mental exertion manifests itself physically.
  • Chess has rules and etiquette which are officially recognized internationally.
  • Chess is competitive as the participating players feel the drive to win.
  • Chess requires skill as a deep and serious chess training is necessary to become good at chess.

Is chess a sport? Is it a game? Is it a pastime? Why are the answers to such questions even important?

Apart from it being a matter of pride (some chess players seem to fancy themselves as “athletes” despite having never set foot in a gym), the question of “is chess a sport?” has important implications for funding.

Several charitable foundations and government grant programs only give financial aid to officially recognized “sports”. If chess is a sport, it opens the door to much-needed outside assistance for clubs and chess coaching programs. Whenever money is involved, the answer matters.

Let’s look at the arguments, one by one. 

Chess Is Competitive

Is Chess A Sport? – 5 Definitive Reasons Why Chess Is A SportLike sports, chess is competitive. The participating players feel the drive to win in a tough struggle against a motivated opponent.

The thrill of victory, and the agony of defeat, as Jim McKay from ABC’s Wide World of Sports, put it.

Unfortunately, this argument fails to hold water. Many activities can be competitive, including Monopoly, gin rummy and tiddly-winks. No-one is arguing that these are sports, just because they happen to be competitive.

Chess Requires Skill

Another thing chess has in common with sports is the fact that it requires skill. Just as the footballer must learn to master running, passing, tackling, and positional game sense, becoming adept at chess requires deep and serious study – memorizing openings, reading books, taking lessons, and becoming familiar with the finer points of endgame play.

Again though, further consideration reveals that while chess requires skill (in common with sports), this is also not enough.

Many actions which are unquestionably not sports require skill – driving a tractor or painting a picture, for example.

Chess Has Rules And Etiquette

The official rules of chess are recognized internationally, in the same way, they are for sports like tennis and cricket. Protocol dictates that chess players ought to shake hands before the game, treat their opponent respectfully by not overtly distracting them, and the losing player shouldn’t tip the board upside down and storm off in disgust (however strong the urge).

But once more, a code of rules and etiquette is not the defining mark of a sport. Assembling furniture has a code of rules. Dining at a fine restaurant involves etiquette.

Being competitive, requiring skill, having rules and etiquette doesn’t make an activity a sport. So what is the litmus test? Is chess a sport

Chess Requires Physical Exertion

Let us go to the Oxford English dictionary for help. It defines a “sport” as being: An activity involving physical exertion and skill in which an individual or team competes against another or others for entertainment.

This definition is regarded as the decisive blow by those who argue that chess is not a sport. Can sit in a chair, in silence, in front of a chess board for hours on end reasonably constitute “physical exertion”?

Actually, as any chess player knows, there is physical exertion involved and not just the basic motor skills of picking up a piece and moving it to another square. The trouble is, it is impossible for people to understand how physically taxing chess can be unless they have played it themselves.

Think back to your last intense game: when the outcome rested on a knife-edge when the complications made your mind burn when you had to concentrate every fiber of your being into making the correct move, and when you deeply cared about the result.

After hours of combat, you would have finished the game feeling drained in both mind and body. Mental exertion manifests itself physically – a tough game of chess can elevate the heart rate, heighten a player’s blood pressure and cause perspiration, even though chess hardly involves much kin-aesthetic movement beyond furrowed brows and nervous trips to the bathroom.

Is Chess A Sport? – 5 Definitive Reasons Why Chess Is A Sport
In our recently published iChess documentary, many strong Grandmasters talk about good tournament preparation and ways to improve in chess.

Top chess grandmasters recognize the need to keep their bodies in peak condition to perform at the highest level.

World champions Bobby Fischer and Magnus Carlsen are both well-known for their demanding exercise regimens to allow them to compete for the necessary long hours without lapses in concentration.

Fischer was surprisingly broad-shouldered, played tennis and swam. In an interview with Dick Cavett in 1971, Fischer explained the need for peak chess performers to have good blood circulation to the head.

Carlsen does his opening preparation on a treadmill, is a keen and talented football player, and brings his own personal chef to chess tournaments in order to maintain his strict diet.

Former World Chess Champion Vishy Anand, for example, did a lot of sport, especially swimming, before his first World Championship Match against Magnus Carlsen in 2013. He lost a few kilos and wanted to be in excellent shape in order to compete with Carlsen, who is more than 20 years younger than him.

Is Chess A Sport? – 5 Definitive Reasons Why Chess Is A Sport
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The 2016 World Chess Championship between Carlsen and Sergey Karjakin was tied at 6-6 after the regulation 12 matches, so entered a four-game tie-break phase to determine the winner.

Though Karjakin had pushed the defending champion Carlsen all the way during the longer matches, the Russian challenger faltered during the rapid games and lost 3-1.

When asked about why Carlsen won out, Karjakin replied: “It was perhaps a mistake that I prepared for both the Black and the White portions. I looked at many varieties. But in rapid chess, it’s better to be in good shape. And I was not in good shape.”

There you have it – the defeated player in the World Chess Championship blamed his loss on his lack of physical fitness. Is chess a sport? That’s a pretty good argument to the affirmative. If you want a shortcut to improving your chess, consider improving your diet and exercise!

Maybe what the naysayers really mean is that chess players aren’t physically exerting themselves enough to call chess a sport. However intense a chess game, it cannot be argued that it’s as physically taxing as completing a marathon, or emerging battered and bruised from a game of rugby.

But what if we compare chess to throwing a javelin, or playing golf? Surely the intensity of mental concentration in chess results in physical exertion which is at least as great as at least some universally-recognized sports.

The Official Line: Is Chess A Sport?

Is Chess A Sport? – 5 Definitive Reasons Why Chess Is A SportPeople’s opinions on the matter of physical exertion vary, so what we really need is an official arbiter.

Fortunately, we have exactly this: The International Olympic Committee is surely the authority whose opinion matters most on such matters. To them, chess is considered a sport.

Because of the physical exertion (which is unquestionably there, though not easily seen), and the International Olympic Committee’s word, we have our answer to our original question: Is chess a sport?

Yes! Chess is a sport!

Still, the image and status of chess varies strongly from country to country. In the former Soviet Union and today’s Russia, for example, chess has always had a high status.

Many former World Chess Champions like Botvinnik, Spassky, Karpov, Kasparov, and Kramnik came from the Soviet Union, respectively Russia.

China is another country in which chess enjoys a very high-status today. The government grants plenty of financial support for the country’s best chess players. Therefore, it’s no surprise that China won the penultimate Chess Olympiad in Tromso 2014.

Several Chinese chess players like Ding Liren, Wei Yi, Li Chao, and Yu Yangyi managed to join the 2700-club within the last few years. The current world’s best female chess player, Hou Yifan, also comes from China.

Although chess is recognized as a sport in almost all countries of the European Union, countries like Germany only spend very little money on the promotion of chess. For this reason, it is tough to compete with countries like Russia or China when it comes to training the country’s best chess players.

Is chess a sport or not? Let us know your thoughts on this highly debatable question in the comments below.

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8 comments on “Is Chess a Sport? – 5 Reasons Why Chess is a Sport

  1. usaridis says:

    -given that; Since IBM’s Deep Blue defeated world chess champion Garry Kasparov in 1997, advances in artificial intelligence have made chess-playing computers more and more formidable. No HUMAN has beaten a COMPUTER in a chess tournament since.
    -and that: Sports is: “an activity involving physical exertion and skill in which an individual or team competes against another or others for entertainment.” (Oxford Dictionary, 2010)
    -ergo: chess is NOT a sport, since a computer is NOT an individual (noun: a single human being as distinct from a group, class, or family. Oxford Dictionary, 2010)
    -and by ‘reductio ad absurdum’ a COMPUTER playing chess, as a sport, IS HUMAN

  2. Ben & Willem says:

    Through my many years of participation in high-level physical sporting activities, such as state-level competitive rowing, national Tennis competitions, top divisions in Rugby and Basketball, I have never seen something quite as preposterous as the claim that chess may be regarded as a ‘sport’.

    “an activity involving physical exertion and skill in which an individual or team competes against another or others for entertainment.” (Oxford Dictionary, 2010)

    “Physical exertion” does not apply to the GAME of chess. Although mental exertion and training may be required, the board game simply cannot be categorized as a sport.

    Referencing the comment from Per as of December 1, 2016, 12:01pm, if Chess is regarded as a sport, why is it that other popular board games, such as Monopoly and Snakes & Ladders, are not regarded as one? Are they not requiring the same level of physical exertion?

    Therefore, you cannot make this uneducated claim without also acknowledging other board games to be introduced as sports simultaneously to chess. Unless you plan on watching UNO at the Olympics, I suggest we end this nonsense before this argument results in the involvement of childish board games in high-level playing fields.

    If you wish to engage in a friendly conversation regarding this topic, feel free to reply with your stance. Please keep in mind I have years of experience and knowledge in the field of physical activities, attending a prestigious private school that excels in both sporting and academic areas.

  3. Sam says:

    This is a great website. But It would make it even better for defensive moves as well. I am only 11 but I have won many tournaments.

  4. Christoff says:

    Other board games may be considered a sport by the same notion but the level of e mental exertion required by chess , at a high level, is much higher. As a semi-competitve chess player, a full day of tournament play left me feeling as exhausted as a full game of soccer. Mental work is by proportion more demanding that physical, even though physical work uses more muscles and therefore more energy.
    So I believe high-level tournament chess can be considered a sport. But playing one game of chess is not.

  5. Sunita says:

    May be not in bits and pieces; but all the arguments together make chess a sport. Whole is always more than the parts.

  6. M. Gil says:

    If my opinion is worth anything, chess demands physical exertion, discipline, along with physical and imaginary boundaries such as sports but the distinction then comes when one looks at performance and outcome. In race cars, polo, soccer, basketball, football, baseball, wrestling, gymnastics one can predict performance and outcome. In chess there are various tactics and outcomes and for that reason I find chess to be more a art and science then sport, as one is constantly creating and inventing in chess.

  7. Martin says:

    To my mind the clincher is organization. Chess, like my sport, bridge, is organized into clubs, and has regional, national and international events. So does Scrabble. Snooker does not involve breaking a sweat, but is covered in the sports section in the media. Cycling to work or for leisure is hardly a sport, but the Tour de France certainly is.
    The question is important since most governments support organized sports financially in some way, with grants or tax exemptions. The UK government refused to consider bridge a sport, but on appeal the EU court did. The tabloid reaction: ‘Barmy Euro Judges Say Bridge is a Sport’ – subtext, another reason to vote for Brexit.

  8. Paul Lillebo says:

    Clearly, if chess is a “sport”, so are all the other games of skill, including checkers (draughts), bridge and poker. And perhaps every form of competition, like spelling bees and knitting competitions. If it weren’t for organizers looking for money, we wouldn’t be having this slightly silly discussion, where any answer is purely self-serving. To the player, chess has always been a game, the “Royal game”. By no means is that category inferior to “sport”.

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