Caro-Kann Defense – A Complete Chess Opening Guide For Black

Caro-kann Defense - A Complete Chess Opening Guide For Black

What Is The Caro-Kann Defense?

  • The Caro-Kann is a chess opening for Black against 1.e4 characterized by the moves 1.e4 c6, when black will follow soon by playing ..d5.
  • Named after two German chess players, Horatio Caro and Marcus Kann
  • A solid and resilient opening
  • Played by many strong GMs of the past and present (featured in several of World Championship Matches)

The Caro-Kann Defense Is the Choice of World Champions

“The Caro-Kann has often been maligned for being dry and boring, played by those wishing to bore their opponents to death.” – IM (WGM) Jovanka Houska

The Caro-Kann Defense is a popular chess opening for Black and enjoys the reputation of being one of the most solid responses to 1.e4.

It has also been a favorite opening of World Champions throughout history such as Capablanca, Botvinnik, Petrosian, and Karpov, and has seen steady growth in popularity in recent years, played by modern Super-GMs such as Anand, Adams, and Leko.

The opening has been a guest at several World Chess Championship Matches throughout history, including, for instance, the match between Garry Kasparov and Anatoly Karpov in 1987, the match between Vladimir Kramnik and Peter Leko in 2004, and the match between Vishy Anand and Magnus Carlsen in 2013.

Caro Kann Defense Infographic

Games Played By World Champions In The Caro-Kann Defense

Here are three games played by World Chess Champions. Two of them played with Black and the other found out how challenging it can be to face the Caro-Kann Defense.

Aron Nimzowitsch – Jose Raul Capablanca, 1927.03.13, 0-1, New York Round 15, New York, NY USA

Aron Nimzowitsch – Alexander Alekhine, 1931.09.17, 0-1, Bled Round 19, Bled YUG

Anatoly Karpov – Anthony Miles, 1983, 0-1, Bath TV-1pl, Bath ENG

The Caro-Kann is a Semi-Open Defense

caro kann 3 595x600 1

The Caro-Kann belongs to the group of semi-open chess openings for Black and occurs after the moves 1.e4 c6 (see the position on the right).

The opening was named in honor of two strong players from Germany, Horatio Caro, and Marcus Kann, who contributed many ideas to the development of this opening at the end of the 19th century.

Yet, as Jovanka Houska states in her excellent repertoire book from 2015 (Opening Repertoire: The Caro Kann; Everyman Chess 2015): “At the time, chess was very much in its ‘Romantic’ stage, a time when it was rude not to accept sacrifices, and gambits were all the rage. Unsurprisingly, the Caro-Kann did not find too many adherents, but as the concepts of positional chess developed, people began appreciating the qualities of the opening.”

It took some years, but in the early 20th century, the Caro-Kann was made popular on a large scale by the efforts of the 3rd World Chess Champion, José Raúl Capablanca. The Caro-Kann became associated with Capablanca’s incredibly solid style as he would use it to draw with Black, seemingly at will. But don’t be fooled – not only is the Caro-Kann an exceptionally solid opening choice for Black against 1.e4, but it can also be dangerous if White is not fully prepared.

Let the Hidden Bite in the Caro-Kann Defense Surprise Your Opponents

While it is true that the Caro-Kann is a solid opening, that isn’t to say that it is an opening weapon simply used to make a draw. In fact, it carries some bite.

On many occasions, for example, Black can make use of the unbalanced pawn structure and opt for a better endgame.

Another thing that makes the Caro-Kann Defense so trendy today is that even though opening theory continuously develops and incredibly strong engines frequently find novelties and new approaches, there is still no easy, clear way for White to get an advantage against this opening in the most critical lines such as the Classical Variation, the Advance Variation or the Exchange Variation.

Therefore, the Caro-Kann Defense presents an impenetrable wall for many 1.e4-players, too tough a nut to crack.

Notable Results in the Caro-Kann Defense

Indeed, the Caro-Kann Defense has given Black some great results at the very top in recent games. Here are a few examples:

  • Nakamura managed to beat Topalov with the Caro-Kann at the London Chess Classic in 2016.
  • Caruana crushed Najer with the Caro-Kann Defense at the Dortmund Super-Tournament in 2016.
  • Ivanchuk used the Caro-Kann to beat Kramnik at the World Cup in Tbilisi in 2017.
  • In 2018, Mamedyarov and Caruana scored several wins with the Caro-Kann at the Saint Louis Rapid and Blitz. 

This opening guide on the Caro-Kann Defense provides you with all you need to know about this fascinating opening.

  • What are the overall advantages of playing the Caro-Kann Defense?
  • Which opening traps and typical tactical motifs should Black be aware of?
  • And what are the main lines and the latest theoretical developments for both sides?

All these questions will be answered in this article.

Frequently Asked Questions

Is the Caro-Kann a good or bad chess opening?

The Caro-Kann Defense is a good chess opening for Black. This chess opening offers many different ways to play the main variations, making it ideal for many different playing styles.

Is the Caro-Kann Defense good for Black?

What makes the Caro-Kann Defense an excellent opening for Black is its ability to provide you with a solid position in the middlegame without having to learn a lot of theory.

In many variations knowing the strategy and pawn breaks will allow you to reach a comfortable, playable position.

Is the Caro-Kann better than the French Defense?

The Caro-Kann is different from the French Defense. All the mainstream chess openings are playable, and it comes down to your style and preferred middlegame positions.

Viktor Korchnoi challenged for the World Chess Championship, and he was a lifelong French Defense player. Anatoly Karpov played the Caro-Kann Defense, and it served him well.

Although it can be reassuring to know great players have played an opening, you must always put the opening to the test in your games. Play a few Blitz games and see how you feel during the game.

When should I play the Caro-Kann?

The Caro-Kann Defense works exceptionally well against 1.e4, but you can also use it to meet the Reti (1.Nf3) and English Opening (1.c4) with Black.

Against 1.d4, you can use the same pawn structure (d5 and c6) and cut down your opening training time by playing the Slav Defense.

What is the goal of the Caro-Kann?

The main aim of the Caro-Kann Defense for Black is to stake a claim in the center with his pawns, without blocking his bishops. The pawn on c6 supports the d5-pawn and helps Black gain space on the queenside with b5.

Easy development, active piece play, and a solid pawn structure make the Caro-Kann Defense very appealing to many chess players.

Is the Caro Kann “all pawns and no hope”?

In the past, the Caro-Kann was considered a dull, safe option. Players chose this defense in the hopes of avoiding razor-sharp theory and reaching a solid position in the endgame.

However, chess has become more dynamic, and Karpov did a lot to make the Caro-Kann Defense popular again.

Who invented the Caro-Kann?

The Caro-Kann Defense is named after two German chess players Horatio Caro and Marcus Kann.

Is the Caro-Kann drawish?

Today this chess opening has shed its reputation as an opening used by players to bore their opponents to death. Statistically, Black has the same winning percentage in the Caro-Kann as in the Sicilian Defense – 24%.

What is the best response to the Caro-Kann?

White’s two most popular options against the Caro-Kann are the Advance Variation (1.e4 c6 2.d4 d5 3.e5) and the Classical Variation (1.e4 c6 2.d4 d5 3.Nc3 dxe4 4.Nxe4 Bf5).

The Advance Variation is particularly effective if you take the time to study playing with a space advantage in the middlegame. Players who enjoy classical development and straightforward strategies will do well playing the Classical Variation.

Caro-Kann Defense – Basics and Key Concepts 

Caro-kann Defense - A Complete Chess Opening Guide For Black

Before we take a deep dive into the theory of an opening, we should always strive to get a solid understanding of its key ideas first.

In the Caro-Kann Defense, Black starts to fight for the center from the very beginning of the game and creates a very solid c6-d5 pawn chain.

In contrast to the Scandinavian Defense, Black does not go for …d5 on move one. He first supports the d-pawn with the move …c6, so that if White captures on d5, Black can capture with the c-pawn and does not have to expose his queen too early.

The Caro-Kann operates on similar principles to the Slav Defense and French Defense, in that the pawns will be placed primarily on 1 color (in the Caro-Kann Defense, the light-squares c6, d5, e6) and the pieces will emphasize control of the dark squares in the center (c5, d6, e5 etc.).

Start by watching the video below, an introduction that’ll show you the opening moves and the general ideas and concepts. This is a great starting point to understand this opening before you continue with this article.

Good Bishops at the Cost of a Tempo

The main idea of this opening becomes clear when we take a closer look at the main problem of playing the French Defense with Black.

In the French Defense, 1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5, Black’s solid e6-d5 pawn chain limits the light-squared bishop on c8. Of course, there are numerous plans that may help Black activate his light-squared bishop in the later stages of the game. The outcome of the opening struggle often depends on the question of whether Black will be able to achieve this or whether the bishop will remain a passive piece, locked in by its own pawns.

The Caro-Kann Defense after 1.e4 c6 2.d4 d5 addresses both of these problems for Black.

With 2…c6, Black supports his d-pawn with the c-pawn instead of the e-pawn. The advantage is that Black does not block in his light-squared bishop on c8 which is still free to move outside the pawn chain to g4 or f5.

Every Chess Opening Involves Give-And-Take

It is important to also mention the downsides of the Caro Kann Defense. If any opening were perfect, it would be played by everyone! One disadvantage of the opening is that the typical move …c5, counter-attacking the White center, loses a tempo because …c6 has been already played (Black cannot go for …c5 in one move).

Secondly, the Black c-pawn blocks the c6-square for the b8-knight. This knight often has to be developed to the more modest d7 square.

Finally, Black has to accept that White gets a space advantage in several lines. Of course, Black has his own benefits to compensate for all these tiny disadvantages and has to try to make them count.

Why Play The Caro-Kann Defense?

Why play the Caro-Kann Defense at all? What kind of playing style will suit this versatile defense?

There are several reasons to play the Caro-Kann Defense:

  • First of all, the Caro-Kann Defense offers a solid score for Black in the latest chess databases. According to the statistics, it performs equally well against 1.e4 as the main openings do, such as the Sicilian Defense, the French Defense or the 1.e4 e5-complex. That means by playing it, you are automatically maximizing your chances statistically.
  • Secondly, playing the Caro-Kann Defense can be a vital alternative for all Black players who are tired of repeatedly entering the highly theoretical terrain of all the absolute main lines after 1.e4 such as the Ruy Lopez or several sublines of the Sicilian Defense. The Caro-Kann often allows the Black player to take the opponent out of his comfort zone by playing a move which is not as frequently played as 1…e5, 1…c5 or 1…e6 French Defense.

3 More Reasons

  • Playing the Caro-Kann Defense does not force you to learn an endless amount of theory. While in some lines a certain theoretical knowledge is also key, it’s much more important to know the key strategic ideas and plans.
  • In the past, the Caro-Kann had a reputation of being too drawish an opening which was not suitable for many club players. Therefore, many Black players didn’t like it. However, that’s only half the story. Thanks to the asymmetrical pawn structure that arises from several variations, the Caro-Kann Defense is also an opening to play for a win – especially if you like squeezing your opponents in the endgame.
  • The Caro-Kann fits well when building a shortcut repertoire with Black. One approach to studying openings is to opt for chess openings which have similar structures. The Caro-Kann against 1.e4 fits extremely well with the Slav Defense against 1.d4. In both openings, there are plenty of similarities in pawn structures and typical strategic motifs.

Caro Kann Defense – Typical Chess Tactics

Active learning is the key to success in chess.

Before we go deeper into the main lines and variations, you have the opportunity to dive actively into the waters of the Caro-Kann Defense and solve 4 puzzles featuring typical tactical motifs that frequently arise from this opening. Have a go! (You’ll find the solutions at the end of the article.)

Although, if you are eager to find a more simplified version of this guide, feel free to check out the basics of the Caro-Kann move by move with our friends over at Chessable.

Move Orders and Variations

We need to create a complete roadmap of the lines and variations we need to study when we want to play the Caro-Kann Defense. This helps us to keep track of the jungle of variations.

There are different setups White can try against the Caro-Kann which we need to cover step-by-step in the theory section:

  • The Classical Variation: 1.e4 c6 2.d4 d5 3.Nc3 (or 3.Nd2)
  • The Advance Variation: 1.e4 c6 2.d4 d5 3.e5
  • The Exchange Variation: 1.e4 c6 2.d4 d5 3.exd5 cxd5, including the classical 4.Bd3 and the Panov-Botvinnik Attack with 4.c4
  • The Two Knights Variation: 1.e4 c6 2.Nf3 d5 3.Nc3
  • The Fantasy Variation: 1.e4 c6 2.d4 d5 3.f3
  • The Accelerated Panov Attack: 1.e4 c6 2.c4
  • The King’s Indian Attack against the Caro-Kann: 1.e4 c6 2.d3

With these different variations in mind, let’s dive straight into the theory.

Theory Section: The Caro-Kann Defense

Caro-kann Defense - A Complete Chess Opening Guide For Black

We now take a closer look at all the aforementioned variations step-by-step, building an easy-to-learn repertoire for Black. Building a repertoire always implies deciding on certain variations and discarding others. The same applies to the repertoire presented in this article.

The aim of this article is to provide a repertoire for busy people who don’t have time to regularly update their repertoire with all the new concepts and novelties. We’ll explain all the key ideas.

You can study these variations separately and add them to your repertoire step-by-step. Occasionally, we’ll briefly mention alternative variations which you can look up on your own if the line appeals to you. This chess opening is an excellent defense that allows you to vary a lot within your own system.

The Opening Variations

Caro-kann Defense - A Complete Chess Opening Guide For Black

Let’s take the Classical Variation, for example, after 1.e4 c6 2.d4 d5 3.Nc3 dxe4 4.Nxe4 (see the diagram on the right). The most common move here is 4…Bf5, but you can also go for 4…Nd7 (a move which Karpov often played) or 4…Nf6 5.Nxf6 and now either 5…exf6 or 5…gxf6.

It becomes obvious that from as early as move 4, you have more than one decent option to stay flexible within your opening.

Even if you like to go for the absolute main line with 4…Bf5 5.Ng3 Bg6 6.h4 h6 7.Nf3, you don’t need to automatically play the main move 7…Nd7, but you can also play the fashionable 7…e6 (a move which Magnus Carlsen used against Vishy Anand in their first World Championship Match).

Caro-Kann Defense: The Classical Variation: 1.e4 c6 2.d4 d5 3.Nc3 (or 3.Nd2)

In the year 2014, Indian GM Parimarjan Negi published the highly influential opening book “1.e4 vs. The French, Caro-Kann and Philidor” in which he suggested playing the Classical Variation (1.e4 c6 2.d4 d5 3.Nc3) against the Caro-Kann to get an advantage.

Many players were inspired by the lines GM Negi gave and started to play the Classical Variation with White. The Classical Variation is the variation you will face most frequently.

Let’s take a look at our recommendation:

For Premium iChess Club members, we’ve got a special highlight for you here. In the following iChess Club Exclusive video, GM Aleksandr Lenderman, a renowned expert on the Caro Kann, dives deep into the latest theoretical developments of the Classical Variation in the Caro-Kann and gives you deep insights into his opinion on the current state of the Classical Variation.

Non-premium members can only watch the first 3 minutes of the video, premium members have full access to the 30-minute video.

Not a premium member yet? Get your upgrade and read about all the advantages of joining the iChess Club as a premium member. Click here to sign up for the iChess Club with half-off your first month.

Caro-Kann Defense: The Advance Variation: 1.e4 c6 2.d4 d5 3.e5

The Caro-Kann Advance Variation is another testing attempt for White to play against the Caro-Kann Defense.

The starting position of the Caro-Kann Advance Variation occurs after the moves 1.e4 c6 2.d4 d5 3.e5.

Caro Kann: A Practical Repertoire For Black Against The Advance Variation – Im Robert Ris (
Caro Kann: A Practical Repertoire For Black Against The Advance Variation – IM Robert Ris (ichess club)

Here, Black’s main move in the Caro-Kann Advance Variation is the quiet 3…Bf5, trying to develop the light-squared bishop outside the pawn chain. However, in this article, we’re going to recommend the more ambitious 3…c5 in the Caro-Kann Advance Variation for Black which also tends to be the better practical choice for busy club players.

In the Caro-Kann Advance Variation, the move 3…c5 has become quite popular lately (as it’s also recommended in the aforementioned excellent opening book by Jovanka Houska) and has been successfully used by players like Vishy Anand, Li Chao, and Jorden Van Foreest.

Black gets excellent practical play in this line of the Caro-Kann Advance Variation and has a multitude of tactical ideas which White can easily fall victim to. Moreover, Black avoids all the complicated theoretical lines in the 3…Bf5 variation.

Having Options Is Always Good

The Caro-Kann is a very flexible defense that provides black with many good options – often within the same variation! Here is IM Alex Ovstrovskiy to show you one way to meet the Caro-Kann Advance Variation.

Let’s take a look at our recommendation:

Again, here is another highlight for our premium members. IM Robert Ris has investigated the Advance Variation with 3…c5 from the Black perspective and found plenty of highly interesting and fresh resources.

Non-premium members can only watch the first 3 minutes of the video, premium members have full access to the 30-minute video.

Not a premium member yet? Get your upgrade and read about all the advantages of joining the iChess Club as a premium member. Click here to sign up for the iChess Club with half-off your first month.

Caro-Kann Defense: The Exchange Variation: 1.e4 c6 2.d4 d5 3.exd5 cxd5

The Exchange Variation looks rather harmless at first glance, but it definitely carries some bite. With new and fresh ideas for White such as Qd1-e1 in the classical line, Black has to be careful not to underestimate this variation.

Moreover, the move 4.c4 introduces the Panov-Botvinnik Attack which is a dynamic effort for White to crush the Caro-Kann Defense. Black needs to know what to do here, so make sure you spend some time studying the below PGN until you are comfortable with this line.

Let’s take a look at our recommendation:

Caro-Kann Defense: The Two Knights Variation: 1.e4 c6 2.Nf3 d5 3.Nc3

The Two Knights Variation is usually chosen by White players who want to avoid the theory of the main lines. The main line of the Two Knights Variation (1.e4 c6 2.Nf3 d5 3.Nc3 Bg4 4.h4 Bxf3) leads to a calm position where White has a very tiny plus thanks to the bishop pair.

Therefore, we suggest a more ambitious line for Black.

Let’s take a look at our recommendation:

Caro-Kann Defense: The Fantasy Variation: 1.e4 c6 2.d4 d5 3.f3

The move 3.f3 is the beginning of the Fantasy Variation, an attacking variation full of traps and tactical ideas that can be quite surprising if you haven’t seen it before.

Against it, the main variation is 3…dxe4 4.fxe4 e5, which leads to tactical positions – exactly what the White player is hoping for and, most probably, not what the typical Caro-Kann player wants to see. Many monographs and books recommend the more solid 3…Qb6!? for Black, yet, this move can also lead to some very unusual play as a game between Nepomniachtchi and Jobava shows:

So, what to play against the Fantasy Variation? Let’s take a look at our recommendation:

Caro-Kann Defense: The Accelerated Panov Attack: 1.e4 c6 2.c4

The Accelerated Panov Attack with 2.c4 occurs relatively rarely in practice, but it’s still vital to know what to play against it.

Let’s take a look at our recommendation:

Caro-Kann Defense: The King’s Indian Attack (1.e4 c6 2.d3 d5 3.Nd2)

The King’s Indian Attack is a universal opening system for White which saves White players a lot of time as it can be used against various Black setups.

King’s Indian Attack players usually have the advantage of knowing where their pieces belong. They are familiar with typical plans and they have some intuition of the subtleties in this opening.

If Black is not careful, he can easily land in an unpleasant position against this apparently harmless setup. In the following video, GM Damian Lemos looks at some of the key plans from White’s perspective in order to show you the dangers for an unprepared Black player.

In fact, however, the King’s Indian Attack is nothing to fear for Black if he knows what he is doing. Let’s take a look at our recommendation:

Opening Experts in the Caro-Kann Defense

Caro-kann Defense - A Complete Chess Opening Guide For Black

If you want to become an expert in your chess opening, it is a wise decision to regularly check the games of the world’s leading experts who play the same opening.

You can watch their approaches against different opening setups and become familiar with the latest trends, fashionable move orders or opening novelties. If you choose to play the Caro-Kann Defense, you have several opening experts to follow.

You can check out the games of GM Shakhriyar Mamedyarov, GM Anatoly Karpov, GM Alexander Riazantsev, Alexey Dreev, GM Vidit Santosh Gujrathi and WGM Jovanka Houska.

Model Games In The Caro-Kann Defense

Caro-kann Defense - A Complete Chess Opening Guide For Black

Many great games have been played in the Caro-Kann Defense and it’s definitely worth taking the time to study them if you are serious about adding this opening to your repertoire.

It is not enough to take a close look at theoretical lines – you also need to study classical model games.

Checking complete games has various advantages. Most importantly, you get a better overall understanding of the positions arising from your opening. The focus is on a general understanding of the resulting middlegame and endgame positions.

As the famous Grandmaster Yasser Seirawan once put it: “Study entire games. Your study can become disjointed if you just learn an opening set-up. Don’t just study the opening and early middlegame but instead play the entire game. Don’t just stop when your side has a good position.”

Let’s now take a look at a game in which Black shows us how to play the Caro Kann Defense against decent opposition:

Krnan, Tomas (2440) – Ding, Liren (2782): FIDE World Cup Baku 2015

Conclusion – Master The Caro-Kann Defense

The Caro-Kann Defense is a strong opening for club players, and you should consider giving it a try to expand your horizons.


It’s a very solid and reliable opening which also helps you to become a better overall strategic player.

The Caro-Kann Defense can be quite complex and it allows for lots of different variations so if you like to be creative and don’t like to play the same variation every game, you should really enjoy this chess opening.

If you want to start playing and mastering the Caro-Kann Defense, we’ve got a fantastic offer for you.

The Caro-Kann Collection of the Video Encyclopedia of Chess Openings offers plenty of interesting ideas for Black (and White!) in the Caro-Kann Defense.

Click here to get instant access with 51% off.

Solutions To The Test Positions:

  • Top Left Corner: White should play 1.Qf3! (threatening mate on f7) 1…Nf6 2.Qb3! (threatening mate on f7 and to capture on b7)
  • Bottom Left Corner: White wins after 1.Qh5+! Kd8 2.Ba5!, winning the Black queen.
  • Top Right Corner: White wins after the crushing move 1.Nxf7! Kxf7 2.Qxe6+ and mate follows shortly.
  • Bottom Right Corner: This is a game of Magnus Carlsen who went for 1.Ng6! fxg6 (1…Rfe8 2.Nxe7+ Rxe7 3.dxc5! Rxd1+ 4.Rxd1 Qxc5? 5.Bd6! +-) 2.Qxe6+ Kh8 3.hxg6 and a crushing sacrifice is going to follow on h6.

Other interesting articles for you:

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One comment on “Caro-Kann Defense – A Complete Chess Opening Guide For Black

  1. Christopher Klacsanzky says:

    Thanks for the extensive information for studying the Caro-Kann, and I will be using it for tournament preparation.

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